Water-Soluble Chemical Types Water-soluble chemical types of fluids, called synthetic fluids, are typically mineral-oil free. They are usually transparent, which helps with visibility. Some are compounded to provide good rust control; others are chemically active, to promote cutting, and can damage machines that are not carefully maintained.
They are not prone to bacterial growth.
They provide a high level of cooling capacity but have less lubricating ability than either the soluble or straight oils.The synthetic grinding fluids are used extensively on vertical spindle grinders where excessive lubrication can cause workholding difficulties (part slippage).
Synthetic grinding fluids are also used with diamond wheels to keep them cool and clean and are also important where workpiece contamination is a problem, as in grinding some microwave and other electronic device parts. Solutions made up for these situations should use deionized water to prevent chloride salt contamination.
Semisynthetic grinding fluids have been developed to combine the benefits of synthetics and soluble oils. These contain less mineral oil in their content than soluble oils do.
The semisynthetics offer good lubricity and better wetting and cooling properties than soluble oils. They are also less viscous than soluble oils; hence, setting is faster and filtration easier.
Water-Soluble Oil Types
Water-soluble oil types, like the chemical fluids, use water as a vehicle with a water-soluble (or emulsifiable) mineral oil mixed in before use. The fluid is the common milky substance often seen in the machine shop. For grinding, this M12_KIBB5087_09_SE_C12.QXD 6/3/09 1:36 AM Page 613 fluid is good for medium stock removal operations. One of the methods used in selecting fluids of this type is to select a
heavy-duty soluble oil and use a 10-percent concentration for critical work and greater dilution on other work.
Bacterial growth, resulting in a foul-smelling fluid, often occurs when the fluid is idle or at slightly elevated temperatures, making it necessary to add bacterial growth inhibitor.
The aeration that normally occurs during daily use helps inhibit bacterial growth.
Straight Oils Straight mineral oils are excellent for lubricating characteristics, but their heat transfer properties are not as good as
those of water-based grinding fluids. Straight oils are preferred for heavy form grinding and thread grinding.
When grinding superalloys, using superabrasives, sulfochlorinated mineral oils are often used to provide extreme pressure capability.
Some additives cause workpiece staining. Some producers are reformulating their products to reduce recycling problems from such additives.
The use of oil precipitators and good positive ventilation of the work area are essential when straight or enhanced oils are being used.

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