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OTHER MARKING SYSTEMS

Because superabrasive usage is proportionally larger in Europe and Japan, wheels with markings other than Standard U.S. designations may be found. One example is the FEPA (Federation of European Producers of Abrasive Products) Standards. These standards apply to a variety of

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GRINDING MACHINE COST EFFECTIVENESS

Grinding is an expensive process. It is estimated that from one quarter to half the money spent on machining in industrialized nations is spent on abrasive operations. Extensive research has been done to optimize the process to make it more cost effective with regard to removal rates and minimizing machine cycle times. Because the objective of manufacturing is to obtain …

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METHODS OF MEASURING TAPERS

The most convenient and simple way of checking tapers is to use the taper plug gage (Figure I-367) for internal tapers and the taper ring gage (Figure I-368) for external tapers. Some taper gages have go and no-go limit marks on them (Figure I-369). To check an internal taper, first …

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BASIC INTERNAL THREAD MEASUREMENT

Because small internal threads are most often made by tap- ping, the pitch diameter and fit are determined by the tap used. However, internal threads cut with a single-point tool need to be checked. A precision thread plug gage (Figure I-342) is generally sufficient for most purposes. These gages are available in various sizes, which …

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FACING

The material to be machined usually has been cut off in a power saw, so the piece is not square on the end or cut to the specified length. Facing from the center out (Figure I-158) produces a better finish, but it is difficult to cut on a solid face in the center. Facing …

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SETTING UP FOR FACING

Facing is done to obtain a flat surface on the end of cylindrical workpieces or on the face of parts clamped in a chuck or face plate (Figures I-143 and I-144).The work most often is held in a three- or four-jaw chuck.If the chuck is to be removed from the lathe spindle, a lathe …

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TURNING MACHINE SAFETY

SAFETY FIRST The lathe can be a safe machine only if the machinist is aware of the hazards involved in its operation. In the machine shop, as anywhere, you must always keep your mind on your work, to avoid accidents. Develop safe work habits in the use of setups, chip …

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