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PLASMA BEAM MACHINING

A great deal of interest and development of plasma beam has occurred in recent years. Plasma is created by passing a gas through an electric arc. The gas is ionized by the arc, and an extremely high temperature results. Temperatures in plasma arcs can exceed ( ), many times hotter than any arc or flame …

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HYDROJET MACHINING

The cutting tool in this process is an extremely high pressure water jet. Pressures of several thousand pounds per square inch are used to pump water through a small nozzle, thus abrasive material directing a narrow stream at the workpiece. The efficiency of the process is enhanced by adding an abrasive material to the water. Thus, …

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ELECTROCHEMICAL MACHINING AND ELECTROCHEMICAL DEBURRING

Electrochemical machining (ECM) is essentially a reverse metal-plating process (Figure M-112). The process takes place in a conducting fluid or electrolyte pumped under pressure between electrode and workpiece. As workpiece material is deplated, it is flushed away by the flow of electrolyte. Workpiece material is removed from the electrolyte by a filtration system. Advantages and …

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TOOL COATINGS

Tool coatings are applied by the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD). Each coating process has distinct advantages in the proper application.Tool coatings are useful because of their high hardness and low coefficient of friction. Coatings improve tool performance whether the substrate is HSS or carbide.CVD coatings are produced in a high-temperature ( ) process. …

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GENERAL PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUE

There are no hard-and-fast rules for CNC programming. Ten different machinist programmers will probably come up with 10 variations in developing a program for the same part. Your experience in manual machining will provide the basis for developing a CNC program, and like all things, your programs, at least early on, will go through …

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ADDITIONAL CAPABILITIES OF THE TOOL AND CUTTER GRINDER

Additional capabilities of this machine include sharpening of reamers, taps, drills, and single-point cutting tools. Having a power-driven workhead permits cylindrical grinding (Figure L-179). The workpiece may be held in a threejaw chuck (Figure L-180) or on a magnetic grinder chuck (Figure L-181). The internal grinding attachment permits internal cylindrical grinding (Figure L-182). The swiveling capability of the workhead permits regrinding of lathe …

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CYLINDRICAL GRINDING A LATHE MANDREL

A lathe mandrel is a common and useful machine shop tool. Precision mandrels are finished by cylindrical grinding after they have been machined and heat-treated. Finish grinding the mandrel will provide you with basic experience in cylindrical grinding. Refer to a working sketch (Figure L-130) to determine the required dimensions. Selecting the Wheel For a hardened …

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IDENTIFYING MACHINE PARTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

On the center-type cylindrical grinder (Figure L-110), the workpiece is mounted between centers much as it would be in the lathe. The plain cylindrical grinder (Figure L-111) has a fixed wheelhead that cannot be swiveled, only moved toward or away from the center axis of the workpiece. The table can be swiveled to permit the …

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GRINDING VEE BLOCKS

The vee block (Figure L-87) is a common and useful machine shop tool. Precision types are finish machined by grinding after they have been rough machined oversize (about .015 in.) and heat-treated. Finish grinding of vee blocks will provide you with a variety of surface grinding experiences. Refer to a working drawing (Figure L-88) …

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CARE OF GRINDER CHUCKS

Like much of the equipment found in the machine shop, grinder chucks are precision tools and deserve the same care and handling you would give your precision measuring instruments. With reasonable care they will maintain their accuracy over many years. Observe the following precautions when using grinder chucks. Step 1 Carefully clean the chucking surface before …

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